Friday, July 31, 2020

The Self-Empowering ‘Seven Bens’ who laid the foundation of famous ‘Lijjat Papad’

We have always loved to either watch or read the story of someone who breaks the financial shackles and barges into the success on own, making others go gaga over his/her achievement, in films, books, etc. 

What it takes to make that ‘Rags to Riches’ story turn into reality, do you know? It is their determination which helps them strive for things not in their reach at incipient stages. 

In semblance to this, we have come up with a similar success story that the world should have known a long ago.

This real-life story revolves around seven Gujrati homemakers who had started papad business under the name of Lijjat papad. They say that the business was kicked off with a meagre loan of Rs.80 in the days dating back to the summer of 1959. The notion of setting up a papad business came to their minds when they were idling away time together on a terrace. 

The state of being financially strapped for money pushed Jaswantiben Popat, Jayaben Vithalani, Parvatiben Thodani, Ujamben Kundalia, Banuben Tanna, Chutadben Gawade and Laguben Gokani to the audacity of putting hands into something which they had no prior experience of. 

In the early days of the startup, they would roll papads on the terrace and come downstairs with 4 packets completed every day. These women carrying fervent hopes were only half-literate, due to which they were left homebound ever since they were married off in their tender age. This papad making was the sole expertise they could avail of back then owing to the dearth of opportunities with them. 

From $1 to $200m: An Indian success story | India | Al Jazeera
Image representing rolling of papad; Credits- Al Jazeera

They find themselves indebted to Purushottam Damodar Dattani to this day because he had mentioned them through the hardships they underwent, especially when there was no other person to render support to them in the cause. He would collect the packets of papad and go to post to pillars throughout the day to find out the right seller, and then eventually handed out to a local store run by Anandji Premji & company in Giragaon, Chowpatti.

This is how the quest for establishing Lijjat Papad set its foot in the market after Dattani Ji successfully persuaded his father to entrust the seven Bens in the making.

Of the seven Bens, JaswantiBen recalls that the first day they could earn only eight annas for one kilogram. She goes on to add that the second day in the business saw an uptick in the earning like they made Re 1 for two kilos. In the following days, the business improved beyond imagination when women of the locality came on board with our seven Bens, hearing the word of mouth from the consumers. In a matter of 3-4 months, the strength of the team grew to 200 and a new branch of Lijjat Papad was opened in Wadala. 

Consequently, the annual sales of papads touched the mark of Rs 6000, that too in 1959 when such amount was considered to be huge. 62 years into the business now, the Lijjat Papad that began with just seven women has shaped into the all-women cooperative with almost 45000 women working under the same roof.

80रु कर्ज लेकर महिलाओं ने शुरू किया ...
Credits- Punjab Kesari

Every woman would stir out of their house, go to the workplace, some kneaded dough and others rolled the dough into paper and lay them on the terrace to dry. The dried-up papads were later handed to the quality testing people once packaged. The quality team always stayed very peculiar about the product, they did not let women go off when the quality failed to match up with the requirements, rather discussed with them the ways to surmount the poor quality of the product.  

Their idea of the quality of papad was deeply rooted in the Indian ethos. People involved in rolling papad ensured that they had a clean house and space, whereas others who lacked these facilities were put in kneading dough, packaging and testing.

To keep the business going, the seven sisters borrowed money from Chaganlal Karamsi Parekh, who later went on to become their another mentor. He asked the working women to brush aside the apprehension of marketing the products, instead exhorted them to be more emphatic on the quality. Gaining appreciation among the populace, many women arrived at joining the hands in making papads. This came as a turning point for the Lijjat Papad. For it to remain all women pervasive workplace, the founding people marched ahead to register it by the name of  ‘Mahila Griha Udyog Lijjat Papad’. The best about the cooperative is any woman, without any relevant skill, can make into the team, provided she has the zeal to thrive under the demanding conditions along with other women in the group.

Lijjat Papad: Biggest Business Revolution movement by Indian Women
Lijjat Papad: Biggest Business Revolution movement by Indian Women (credit:

The cardinal principle they adhere to till today is the quality of ingredients they use in making of papads. The reason for what they have never compromised upon is the cause of the success of the business since the day it came into being. Ingredients like Urad dal, Hing, black pepper, to name a few have been imported from across the length and breadth of India, and sometimes the import even transcended the border to Myanmar over the years.

Who knew of something called “Work From Home” unless it became the new normal during the present pandemic of COVID-19. But our seven Bens had taken to WFH norm long back when women were forbidden to even step out for anything. 


Don’t you see it as a precedent of women empowerment? Women empowerment in the sense that they had trespassed the very unconventional path of emanating from their household boundaries and ingressed into the far reaches of the interoperability. Many people also at that time in their proximity must have tried hard to shake their determination but could have not done, all because the seven Bens were too high on their ambition to be bogged down by anything. 

from The Second Angle

Is India’s modern politics reliving Chanakya’s kutil-neeti?

Chanakya – the chief adviser of two Mauryan Emperors, was one of the finest brains the country has ever had. His lessons on life are commonly known as Chanakya Neeti. His intelligence has certainly contributed a massive share of knowledge to the world. Often do we hear people comparing modern-day politicians with Chanakya with famous taglines like Chanakya of the 21st century (our honourable PM, Narendra Modi). Their ideologies and policies are often related to that of Chanakya, though this statement seems to be contrary in itself as Chanakya was not only about using Kutil-neeti or diplomacy to solve problems. He was also about taking strict measures to make our Bharatvarsha a strong and truly great nation. For him, Bharat came before everything else. In the recent decades, many politicians from various political parties have been compared with Chanakya, and such comparison increases during and post elections as comparing a leader with a famous brainy person and relating their ideologies with his, will surely increase their vote bank while in reality, our current or past politicians being equal to even a hair of Chanakya’s Shikha. In fact, they never understood the soul of Chanakya’s struggle at all.

His work and policies:

Chanakya is considered to be the brain behind the founding of the Mauryan dynasty. His work, Arthashastra an ancient Indian Sanskrit treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy. The Arthashastra explores issues of social welfare, the collective ethics that hold a society together, advising the king that in times and in areas devastated by famine, epidemic and such acts of nature, or by war, he should initiate public projects such as creating irrigation waterways and building forts around major strategic holdings and towns and exempt taxes on those affected. The text was influential on other Hindu texts that followed, such as the sections on kings, governance and legal procedures included in Manusmriti.

Points that distinguish Chanakya from modern-day politicians:

The first point that distinguishes Chanakya from any other modern politician is that he didn’t rule himself rather made Chandra Gupta king as he did not care for self-aggrandisement or fame. He never wanted to rule, he only wanted to have a strong ruler rule Bharatvarsha, protect her borders and territories and Sanskriti. He was an intellectual who left behind a treatise (Arthashastra) of how a just ruler should rule the nation therefore, Comparing any self-serving modern politician to Chanakya is an insult to his memory.

During the time of Chandragupta’s reign under the guidance of Chanakya,  immediate and fair judgement intertwined with strict enforcement of punishments and delivery of justice was the hallmark of the rule. Today we have court cases which go on for years, corruption especially in lower courts, dependence on loopholes to wriggle out of justice, corruption in the police, use of court judgements to twist things to favour some sections of society (suppression based on the amount of wealth a person have),non-implementation of judgements, the list is endless. How can anyone call any politician a Chanakya if he/she cannot even set right the judicial system and law and order?

Chanakya was a product of Takshashila University. He wanted to establish a world-class university in Magadh and make Patliputra a centre for the education he encouraged equipping knowledge through the study of the Vedas (Religious Scriptures), Varta (Commerce and Agriculture), Danda-Niti (Law & Order) and Anvikshiki (the spirit of inquiry including Samkhya, Yoga and Lokayata). And in today’s world, a very valid example of mediocrity is the way Yoga has been reduced to just asanas or physical exercise. There is no attempt to make the learner explore further at all. The less said about our education of the legal system (Danda Niti) which only talks about the letter of law and nothing about justice, the better. Commerce and agriculture which were once the backbone of our country are today secondary, nay even later, to the service sectors which are nothing but body shops which look for corporate slaves.

Modi's Mandala: Why Indian Prime Minster Is Modern Chanakya
Credit: The true picture


Hiding policies and ideologies behind a famous face don’t make the person or his work righteous. One is supposed to walk on the path shown by our historical heroes and not to rename a path by your own name. Every political party is trying up to garner vote bank by pleasing people by showing their fake identity, calling themselves as their follower or using their identity as their own. In a world where the ruler is running behind votes and not an established rule, how can someone even think of comparing these Modern politicians with Chanakya?

from The Second Angle

Hyundai Venue with new Intelligent Manual Transmission (iMT)

New Hyundai Venue is here ….wait what? The Venue is already in the Indian market …but this time everything is the same but the transmission is totally different. Venue’s 1.0-litre engine is mated in between the manual and automatic transmission that is newly built and latest in industry, an iMT transmission ( Intelligent Manual Transmission) is without a clutch to make your driving pleasure better than Automatic and hassle-free like Automatic.

This new transmission is basically build to reduce hectic burden in everyday commutes and cheaper than Automatic.

Source-Autocar India

How iMT works?

The new Hyundai iMT technology features a Transmission Gear Shift (TGS) Lever with Intention Sensor, Hydraulic Actuator, and Transmission Control Unit (TCU). These are the main components of iMT which makes the transmission hassle-free.

The TCU receives a signal from the TGS lever intention sensor, which indicates to change Gears. The TCU sends a signal to engage the hydraulic actuator forming hydraulic pressure. That hydraulic pressure is then sent to the concentric Slave Cylinder (CSC) through the clutch tube. The concentric slave cylinder uses that same pressure to control the clutch and pressure plate, thereby engaging and disengaging the clutch. This process doesn’t require the driver to mechanically operate a clutch pedal which made 1 leg free likely as in Automatic.

The whole process makes it totally different setup from Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) or the Dual-Clutch Transmissions (DCT).

Source-Autocar India

In layman language, The iMT is just a manual transmission having sensors to engage or disengage the gears in replacement of clutch pedal. This results in the classic driving experience with the same efforts as Automatic as there are only two pedals under your feet-brake and gas, the same as Automatic. While this is also true, the iMT gearbox could be criticized while moving up hills because the half clutch technique is very useful on hills.

from The Second Angle

7-yers-old Shruthi J sells her artwork to raise orphanage fund this pandemic; inspires many

Times are tough as the pandemic has hit the country hard. It is difficult for poor people to survive and the situation is worst in case of orphan children. In such a time a girl from Bengaluru is trying to help the society’s children of her age by her extraordinary work and we bring her story for you to get inspired.

As the schools are closed due to coronavirus outbreak Shruthi J, a 7-years-old girl and a resident of Bengaluru who is in grade third and studies in Capitol Public School J P Nagar of the same city, decided to utilize her time to paint and sell her work to raise funds for a neighbourhood orphanage. She started painting from March-end and had 50 paintings till May end. Her father G Jeyachandaran, who himself is a social worker contacted NGO for support. Her Noble cause is backed up by an NGO called Reach Out India.

Initially she wanted to give her toys and belongings to the children of that orphanage but she was encouraged by her parents to use her skill to help them. Her mother V Kavitha who is an artist, animator, jewellery designer taught her to paint.

The orphanage she is contributing to is ‘Prasanna Jyothi Ashram’ and it is in her neighbourhood.  She gifted toys, books and stationery stuff to 25 kids there and also visits that place with her father once every month and on special occasions as well.

Shruthi plays with them, sharing treats and toys. She would often ask me: ‘Why do these children not have toys and clothes like me?’  I explained to her how these children came here. She said she wanted to help them and started painting during lockdown Jeyachandran said.

“I started drawing and raising money because I want my friends at the shelter to have the same things that I do,” said Shruthi.

Reach Out India is supporting her in this cause. This NGO founded by Mansa Rao and Shishira Johnny.

“People are contributing to encourage Shruthi’s extraordinary spirit. Though her work is priced Rs 250 onwards, several people are donating more to support the cause.” Manasa Rao said.

from The Second Angle

Thursday, July 30, 2020

From “Paro” to Polyandry, India’s ill-fated women trafficked into marriage

For once imagine yourself being chained to something and watch your dreams being crushed right in front of your eyes, you can’t move or protest and all you can do is blend in the process of acceptance.

We all have seen ourselves bargaining to a street vendor for the cost of a fruit or a vegetable and as you read this, somewhere in India this too is happening, but this time it’s not a fruit or a vegetable, it’s a human, precisely a woman being subjected to a price tag which has its roots in India’s patriarchal and misogynist society but, where did it all began? and how far have we come into tackling India’s deep-rooted patriarchy? This needs to be addressed now. 

memes_k_badshah Instagram profile with photos and videos - Imgund
Representative Image

The discrimination against girls remains extensive, particularly in rural and poor communities where they are considered as financial burdens. when parents marry their girls young, it is also to ensure they do not stake any claim to the parent’s property. The ongoing dowry system in India puts a great financial burden on the bride’s parents more so when they are not able to afford to pay the dowry and are unable to get their daughters married so this leaves them with one option. By selling their daughters they not only escape the whirlpool of dowry but also make some money.

Haryana is the hotspot for bride trafficking from distant parts of India. By preferring male child over female and indulging in horrific acts like female foeticide, it has constructed paths for traffickers without barriers. Minor girls are being trafficked across states, regularly raped and later blamed for not delivering male babies. That doesn’t stop here, women aren’t trafficked once, they’re trafficked twice or many times over. As reported by Al Jazeera, a trafficked bride in Haryana speaks so “I was driven in a truck, after that I was sold to a blind man. Then I was sold to someone else and someone else after that. I was constantly being given drugs. I said, “I don’t want to go any further.” He said, “let’s see how you don’t want to go.” He would put my legs over the fire.”. Girls are trafficked for a low cost of 5,000 rupees to comparatively higher of 40,000 rupees based on their physicalities like complexion, health, age and virginity. With cases of female genocide in Haryana, it has brought with it other evils of bride trafficking, kidnapping, female abuse and polyandry. In most cases, purchased brides become victims of unverified marriages. They ‘live a life on the fringe’ with no legal validity of the marriage.

Image Credit: Al Jazeera

Molki or Paro: An abusive word

The word “Paro” is well known today in regions like Haryana, Punjab, Western Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. It comes from degrading attitude of men towards women which means “woman who is purchased for a few bucks.”.  women “bought and brought” as purchased brides live in an appalling condition, suffer exploitation, both physical and mental. Despite the hatred these women feel towards being called Paros, the name-tag seems inseparable and reflects their doleful predicament which is a serious violation of woman’s most basic rights. The person from whom paro is being bought affords all the expenses throughout the way. The wide-scale social acceptance of sexual exploitation of women in the past for the satisfaction of men has transformed into the current practice of buying women “paro” or “molki”. Dr. Madhav Mohan Godbole, the director of Balgrah, a centre for rehabilitation in Rai, a village in Haryana said, “Villagers come to us and plead for brides. They say if we can’t fix them up, they will be forced to buy girls”.

Polyandry in India:

Polyandry refers to the practice where one woman has more than one husband or male partners and it is not unusual in Haryana. Prof Rajesh Gill carried out the UGC-funded study in a district in Haryana and said “it was observed that due to poverty and lack of property or resources, men remained bachelors till late age, as none was prepared to marry their daughters to them. In order to cope with the situation, one of the brothers would marry and others would share his wife.” “Not a single case of domestic violence was found in households with wife sharing. Instead, women in these cases were founds to be extremely cheerful, satisfied and happy, unlike their counterparts in other households,” he added.  Prof Gill also authored ‘Gender Culture and Honour’, “The married brothers formed a group with unmarried ones and thus two brothers were sharing a wife each” says the book.

Credit: Hindustan Times

In 2006, the ugly denouncement of polyandry resulted in the murder of 18 years old tribal girl. She was sold as a bride in Haryana’s male-dominated family of a farmer. The skewed sex ratio is a common phenomenon even in India’s largest state, Rajasthan where polyandry is practised to safeguard their lands. they have no qualms in sharing their wives as long as their land safely remains undivided in the families.

India against Bride Trafficking: 

A critical element of the campaign against Bride Trafficking is the development of national and local coalition who is helping to implement the campaign. The constitution of India prohibits all forms of trafficking under Article 23(1).  The march against bride trafficking 2018 was an initiative by Shafiqur Rahman Khan, the founder of empowering people and an everywoman working group member. The goal of the march was to explore ways government offices, NGO’s, youth groups and other stakeholders can work together to prevent bride trafficking.

Sunil Jaglan, convener of Avivahit Purush Sanghatan, who has been running a campaign against female foeticide and bride trafficking says “Because of the gender imbalance, a number of men who are past the prime of their youth are still waiting for the prospective bride. So, their parents and villagers do not object to a matrimonial alliance with girls from other states and cultures. They sometimes even sell their lands to buy brides.” 

Even after all the efforts, the irony still persists, and that is, on one hand, men are purchasing girls and on the other hand graph of dowry is touching the sky.

from The Second Angle

New National Education Policy Approved by the Cabinet: All You Need to Know

Approved by The Union Cabinet it aims at changing some major patterns of India’s education system right from school to college level. Multiple changes have been approved including single regulator for higher educational institutions, multiple entry and exit, discontinuation of M.Phil programs, the common entrance exam for all Universities to name a few.

File photo of Union Minister Prakash Javadekar (PTI)

The Union Cabinet has also approved the decision of renaming The Ministry of Human Resource Development to the Ministry of Education.

Union minister Prakash Javadekar said the changes are important as the policy, which was framed in 1986 and revised in 1992, had not been revised since then.

Evident changes have been made bringing about major transformations in the system of education. Some policies are revised on the other hand some new policies have been introduced.

Here are the main highlights of the National Education Policy 2020 of India.

  •  From class 1 to 5 the medium of instruction for the students will be either in mother tongue or in regional languages.

  •  School curriculum is decided to be reduced to core concepts along with the integration of vocational education from class 6 onwards.

  • 50% of learners through the school and higher education system shall be provided with the exposure of vocational education.

  • Early childhood care and education will be provided in Kendriya Vidyalayas around the nation especially in disadvantaged areas as a part of preschools.

  • The state government may open NCC wings in their secondary and higher secondary schools, along with those located in tribal-dominated areas.

  • Internship opportunities will be provided to the students from class 6-12 in the holiday period.

  •  Report card of students will not highlight only marks and statements but also the skills and capabilities of the students.

  •  The national mission will be centred around basic literacy and basic numeracy.

  •  E-courses are supposed to be developed in Regional languages for students.

  • Library spaces for adult education courses which will be ICT-equipped. National Education Technology Forum (NETF) will be created.

  •  The new pattern of education will be more holistic and multidisciplinary in its approach.

  • There will be no rigid separation between streams and the separation between vocational and academic and curricular and extra-curricular will be removed.

  • The Board exams will test actual knowledge of students and not rote learning.

  • Sanskrit will be an important part till a higher level of schooling including it as an option in three language formula.

  •  Free entry in Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya for students coming from a socio-economically disadvantaged background.

  •  Fees charged by educational institutions will be capped.

  • Graduate, Postgraduate and PhD programme will be multi-disciplinary.

  • For Bachelor’s degree, there is multiple entries and exit options so that students can study for 1 year 2 years, 3 years with 4th year adding to a research degree and in case of diploma, the student will be offered diploma for 1 year education or advanced diploma for 2 years education.

  • Master’s will remain a two-year degree where in the second-year student will enter research who have completed 3 years undergraduate. For those who would complete 4 years of undergraduate with research there would be an option of a one-year master degree for them.

  •  M.Phil will be discontinued as students will be able to pursue PhD after masters.

  • By 2030, 4-years integrated B.Ed degree will be the minimum qualification for teaching.

  • NIOS is supposed to develop high-quality modules to teach sign languages and basic subjects using Indian sign languages.

  • State and districts will be encouraged to open Baal Bhavans as a special day time boarding school providing students with the opportunity to participate in creative art, career and play-related activities.

  • Children with disabilities will be able to participate in regular schooling with the help of skilled educators and tools and mechanism suited for their special needs.

  •  Higher Education Institution will be governed by a single authority. Common entrance exams will be conducted for admission in universities.

  • All higher education institutions, apart from legal and medical colleges, will be governed by a single regulator

  • PARAKH a National Assessment Center has been created to assess the students.

  • The education sector is supposed to get 6% of GDP which was 1.7% earlier.

  • “NEP 2020 aims to increase the Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education including vocational education from 26.3% (2018) to 50% by 2035. At least 3.5 crore new seats will be added to higher education institutions” HRD higher education secretary Amit Khare said.

These changes are made by the Ministry of Education keeping in mind the current pandemic situation, to lower the stress level of the students and other things as well however it is getting some flak for the modifications and editions in the policies and rules that might not prove fruitful in the long run.

from The Second Angle

Relief for Central Government Employees this Pandemic

News of relief for Central Government Employees has finally come. Employees who were retiring in the Coronavirus pandemic as declared by the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions on Monday, that they will get provisional pensions till their Pension Payment Order (PPO) is issued and other formalities completed.

Realising that amid Pandemic and lockdown it would be quite difficult for the employees to submit pension forms to the Head of Office or they may not be able to transmit the claim form in hard copy along with service book to the concerned Pay & Accounts Office in time, especially when both the offices are at different regions, Union Minister Jitendra Singh told the media.

“This is very pertinent to the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) who are constantly on the move and whose Heads of Offices are located in cities different from where the Pay & Accounts Office is located,” said Singh, Minister of State for Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions.

He also said since the Modi government is in power, the Department of Pensions and Pensioners’ have been upgraded and they are trying to make arrangements to deliver PPO to the employees as soon as possible, without the delay on the day of his or her superannuation.

They have also set up an online portal for the retired employees, where they can check the status of their pension documents.

The provisional pension for the employees retiring during the pandemic will be provided for six months from the date of retirement, and it can be extended during some exceptional cases for up to one year. The instructions of DoPT will also apply in cases of voluntary retirement, retirement under FR 56, and so on.

The delay caused by the regular CCS (Pension Rules) 1972, will be met by this provisional pension initiative.

from The Second Angle

Every wife in India must know these legal rights, here is a list

Once married, a woman should only leave her in-laws’ house when she is taken for her final rites.” This cliched line is often used in daily soaps and movies to denote the unwavering loyalty and devotion an Indian woman is expected to show her husband and her in-laws.

While much said about the responsibilities that marriage brings, we are often silent about the rights that the law allow women. The Indian society has spent centuries grooming young girls to be future good wives (sanskari bahus), yet they have to adjust, compromise, and more often to bear trauma for the happy marriage (in perticular her husband and In-laws).  This makes these girls grow up to feel that they have to cater all the absurd atrocities in their marriage. Marriage has been proposed to these girls as an accomplishment from a very young age which is another reason why they didn’t even question it when they grew up.

“If you’re a man, you should probably get married, If you’re a woman, don’t bother.” writes behavioral scientist Paul Dolan in his new book, Happy Ever After: Escaping the Myth of the Perfect Life  

 Most Indian women walk into marriages without the realisation that a marriage can be unhappy or a difficult one as well. Even today, we do not prepare our daughters or would-be brides on how to deal with a marital alliance that is traumatic.  But times have changed, women are no longer dependant on their near ones, at least when it comes to gaining information. To combat injustice, one needs to have a thorough understanding of her legal rights. All women, married or soon to be, young or old, should know their legal rights. Women can penalise any oppression in marriage and claim freedom from the alliance and dignity if they are aware of their legal rights, here are some legal rights that every married Indian woman is entitled to.

  1. Right to Matrimonial home
  •  A wife has the legal right to live in the matrimonial house, even after the husband dies.
  • Even if the house is not owned by the husband, belongs to his parents, or is a rented apartment.
  • In case of separation, she can stay at the marital house until an alternative is arranged for her or she goes to her parental house.

     2. Right to property:

  • A woman has equal legal rights to inherit her husband’s property as other heirs. She can inherit it only if the husband hasn’t prepared a will or hasn’t excluded her from the will.
  • If a husband remarries without dissolving the first marriage, the rights to the property belong to the first wife.

3. Right to report domestic violence:

  • A woman can report domestic violence under the Protection of Women Under Domestic Violence Act (D.V. Act), 2005.
  • This act criminalises physical, emotional, sexual, economical, and other forms of ill-treatment.
  • She can claim protection, maintenance, custody, compensation, and continue to live in the same house.
Representative Image ( Domestic Violence )

4. Right to Abortion:

5. Right To Divorce:

  • Section 13 of HMA (Hindu Marriage Act) 1955 gives women the legal rights to file for a divorce without the consent of the husband.
  • The divorce can be filed on the grounds of adultery, cruelty, desertion, thrown out of marital home, mental disorder, etc.
  • Section 13B of the Act allows divorce by mutual consent.

Right to seek maintenance and alimony:

  • Section 125 of IPC gives a married woman the legal right to seek maintenance from her husband for a lifetime.
  • If the marriage fails, the HMA of 1955 provides women with the legal rights to claim maintenance of herself and her children from the husband during (interim maintenance) and after divorce (permanent maintenance).
  • However, Mahr is an important concept in Muslim personal law which is directly connected with the right to maintenance.
  • The amount of maintenance doesn’t include Stree Dhan and is set up by the court on the basis of the husband’s financial and living status (includes up to 25 percent of it).

In case the wife is earning:

  • She can claim maintenance from the husband only if he earns more.
  • If both earn the same amount, she cannot claim maintenance for herself, but can claim it for the child.
  • The husband can also claim maintenance if the wife earns more.

6. Dowry Prohibition And Harassment:

  •  Dowry Prohibition Act of 1961 prohibits the dowry system. A woman can report against her parental family or the in-laws for exchanging dowry.
  • Any case of cruelty she faces from her in-laws on account of dowry can be reported under Section 304B and 498A of IPC that criminalises dowry harassment.
  • The Section criminalises the dowry harassment of the bride in the form of cruelty, domestic violence (physical, emotional, or sexual harassment), abetment to suicide, and dowry death.
  • Marital rape hasn’t been criminalised in India yet, but forced sex can be reported under the Domestic Violence Act and Dowry Harassment.

7. Family Courts Act:

  •  It provides for the establishment of Family Courts for speedy settlement of family disputes.

8. Right to claim child’s custody:

  • The Guardian and Wards Act of 1890 gives equal custodial rights and duties to both the parents. However, if the child is below five years of age, the mother has superior rights.
  • A woman has the right to take the child along with her while leaving the marital house without any court order.
  • A woman can claim the custody of her children after divorce or separation, regardless of whether she is employed or unemployed. She can always claim maintenance from her husband.

9. Right to live a life of dignity and self-respect and have a committed relationship

  • A woman has legal rights to have independence, the same lifestyle as husband and freedom to speak against any injustice.
  • She legally deserves a committed relationship in a marriage. Adultery and polygamy are legal grounds of divorce.
  • No law prohibits a married woman from getting educated or employed.

10. Legal Services Authorities Act

  • This provides for free legal services to Indian women.

Acts mentioned above have been taken from the previous post of  and

from The Second Angle

Gold demands plunge to lowest on record

Indians and ornaments can be used simultaneously showing the obsession Indian have over jewelleries, specifically gold. Considered a symbol of purity and sanity, gold is purchased on occasions as a good sign for the wealth of the family. But, the pandemic and virus situation has brought the purchase of the gold plunging to the lowest on record.
Lockdowns in India since the end of March shuttered businesses and left millions jobless. Factories have reopened even as the epidemic in the country is now growing at the fastest pace in the world.

According to the World Gold Council, Gold purchases by Indians this year are forecast to tumble to a record low as the coronavirus pandemic hurts the economy and prices surge to all-time highs.

Consumption fell 56% from a year earlier to 165.6 tons in the first half of 2020 and the drop is unlikely to be made up during the rest of the year, P.R. Somasundaram, managing director for India, said in an interview. “Going by what we are seeing now, lockdowns are still continuing in many parts of the country and it will be a very, very challenging year. It must be one of the lowest perhaps we have ever seen.”

情報BOX:新型コロナウイルス、世界の感染者1676万人超 死者約65.9 ...
A woman working in a gold shop wearing a mask and other protective equipment. (Credit: Reuters India)

However, factories have reopened gradually according to the unlock guidelines laid by the government but the economy has slowed down and is in a period of recession.  Gold prices have peaked up resulting lower consumption.“For gold demand to survive, the economy has to do well,” Somasundaram said. “There is also a lot of anxiety among people regarding incomes and a lot of people from the unorganized sector are not doing much business. Whatever savings people have, they will put it into the businesses or pledge gold to raise money. They will not put that into buying gold.”

He adds, “However, demand could jump by 350 tons in a single quarter if life as we know it comes back. A sense of optimism is developing among jewellers that by the festival of Diwali, in November this year, virus-related disruptions may matter less as people learn to live with it, spurring consumer confidence and jewellery demand.”
With the coming festivals of Diwali, Rakshabandhan and many more, people who were planning to surprise their loved ones with gold ornaments will find it a bit difficult this time and may need to alter their plans.

from The Second Angle

What If I Give My Dog The Power To Rule The World?

If I give my dog the power to rule the world, he would not hesitate to eat all the food. Analogously, when a man is faced with the power of the cognitive mind, he would do the same.

To begin with, let’s talk about my dog. I adore my dog, but he can be quite a scavenger; he will do everything in his power to eat food. If we have food on the table, and someone stands up to get something, he will straight away put his paws onto the table and attempt to eat the food plated. What does this mean?

Ever Wonder What Would Happen If Dogs Ruled the World?

This shows us that animals, whenever granted with an opportunity to get something they want, will take that opportunity without hesitation, even if it means that they eventually eat too much and die; they don’t know any better. It is as Nietzsche puts “Will to Power.” Simply put, Will to Power is a force, which does not need another force to make it act. It is the internal will, which creates the need for a force to act.

Humans’ views on morality and good and evil are not present in the animals. They do get sad and happy, but they do NOT consider good and evil, animals are solely based on ‘pleasure-principle.’ Their behaviours are fully driven by their ‘id’ Because they don’t have an ‘ego’, which Freud called ‘the reality-principle’ which make us think of the consequences (on others) of our every step. But are today’s humans any different? Despite having a well functional ‘ego’ in their cognitive minds, they are seen to be behaving like animals, in fact, much worse than that. Today, the human is like my dog in the scenario I talked about in the beginning, humans are eating all the food presented on the table, without thinking of the consequences.

Coming to morality, animals are called immoral, and this isn’t an opinion rather a fact. But are only animals immoral? Not today, humans are proving to be equally immoral these days. Most people call humans evil and I completely agree, they are termed evil because unlike animals, they have nothing to blame their evilness upon. They have the power and now they are using it to dominate the world.

Humans aren’t just dominating their world but the world as a whole. Their dominance over the ecosystem is disastrous as well. It is humans only because of whom the food chain and the circle of life is distorted. Everyone is convinced with this because there’s no authoritative power on humans. They do what they think is right, like animals, they are also driven by their ‘will to power’.

During the stone age era, man has been known for his sharp brains. When he wanted to convey his feelings- he learnt the art of making shapes and designs on the walls of the caves. When the burden he was fastened to got too heavy – he learnt the art of moulding circular wheels. Every time man was stuck, clasped to the predicaments of nature and life- he would conquer it. And to this day, in primary school humans and animals have been differentiated on the basis of their cognitive and understanding ability. Humans always had the hunger to learn and to create to make their lives easy but today they have become the destroyer. They destroy things and people – feelings and sentiments – without regret and without ceasing. This ever-increasing behaviour is what makes us- the humans evil. Evil, what animals aren’t. You see we have an advantage over those animals. We have brains; to speculate, become better and more enhanced but we are using our brains in the wrong way. Instead of forging, we are demolishing. On the trail of invention and discoveries, somewhere in the middle of it, a void is forged in our minds. A cage to stop learning and developing- to cease at one particular schedule to de-escalate the bar of our value to money. The things we established for our comfort became the one that took it away. The man was given everything he could ever ask for- but he ended up misusing it. In different facets and aspects, man has started degenerating. He is moving back towards the trail of the stone age, or maybe far behind that.

To conclude, I would like to add that I’m not pleased with the way animals are called evil and immoral although humans are way ahead than them. And neither should you. It is high time we ponder upon our actions and change ourselves for the betterment of not just our community but the whole wide world.

Do let us know what are your views upon this, in the comments section below.

from The Second Angle

Dr. S. I. Padmavati: An Epitome of Perfection.

Age is just a number,’ we come across this saying many times in talk of life and career. Well, this is not just a saying but a reality. In the world, there exist some people who testify that age has nothing to do with success.

Dr. Sivaramakrishna Iyer Padmavati, who just turned 103 in June, is such an ideal personality. She is the first women cardiologist of India, also regarded as the doyenne of cardiology. Dr. Padmavati born in Burma, Myanmar, in 1917. Completed her MBBS from Rangoon Medical School. After receiving a medical degree, in 1949, she went to London for higher studies.

She received an FRCP from the Royal College of Physicians, London, and FRCPE from the Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh. Her interest in Cardiology bloomed while she was studying in London, later her curiousness compelled her to move Sweden, where she took cardiology courses at the Southern Hospital. In 1952, she went to Harvard University, where she studied cardiology under the supervision of Dr. Paul Dudley White.

After completing her studies, Dr. Padmavati comes back to India. In 1967, she joined Maulana Azad Medical College, Delhi. In the same year, she was awarded the Padma Bhushan by the Government of India. She was also awarded India’s second-highest civilian honour, the Padma Vibhushan in 1992. Her one of the most significant contribution was the instalment of cardiologist unit at G.B.Pant Hospital. She also formed the All India Heart Foundation (AIHF) in 1962, to educate and share awareness about heart diseases.

At such age, she is still very active and full of life. Till late 2015, she was so fit that she used to sit and work for 12 hours per day, five days per week at National Heart Institute in Delhi. Sources say that she still visits occasionally to check on her old patients. No doubt, love for her profession, and desire to alleviate human sufferings, boost up her energy to attend patients.

While talking about her longevity and health’s secret, she gives credit to her disciplined lifestyle and her mother. She said, “My mother lived to 105, and I followed her footsteps in adopting a healthy lifestyle. Remember, we are products of our environment.” Dr. Padmavati is an inspiration for all of us.

Dr. Vinod Sharma, the senior cardiologist at NHI, says that despite her old age, she hardly flags strength. He also mentioned, “We could get tired but not her. During the late 1990 and early 2000, she would sit with me till late at night to complete research papers and articles. Even today, whenever she comes to the hospital, she catches up with the latest medical journals and research. She is well versed with technology and writes her own emails.”

With such immense potential at this age, Dr. Padmavati proved that, no matter what your age is, if you are determined and focused, you can achieve anything in life, but of course, with a strict and healthy plan.

One of her student, Dr. Santosh Prakash at NHI, remember her, as a great teacher and a humble person. She was very friendly toward her patients. Whenever Dr. Padmavati interacts with her patients, Dr. Santosh added, she used to sit and listen to them carefully. She had a special heart-to-heart kind of bonding with them.

Dr. Padmavati’s selflessness, dedication, and respect towards her profession make her – the quintessential woman. Despite her age factor, she is always ready to mend people’s hearts. Indeed, Medicine is a noble profession.

from The Second Angle

Wednesday, July 29, 2020

Environment Ministry drafts dreadful EIA amendments: “Ease of Business” outbids sustainability

In May 2014, when Prime Minister Modi took office, he stated unambiguously that India’s development trajectory will be green.

Even in the case of the ambitious Smart Cities Mission (SCM), Housing Scheme for All, Sustainability and Climate Resilience were at the heart of the programs. When the US withdrew from the Paris agreement, there was strong speculation that India will lead the world to combat climate change but apparently, they were just an imaginary manifestation.

India issued the country’s first Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) notification in 1994, under the Environment (Protection) Act (EPA) of 1986. This was later replaced by a modified draft in 2006.  The new Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) 2020 draft notification has irked every environmentalist in the country. The amendments proposed in this new draft shows that the government is defiant to compromise the environmental aspects in favour of development. Basically, the purpose of EIA is to screen the social, economic, and environmental impacts of any project but the 2020 amendment draft notification is trying to bring in changes that are particularly detrimental to the environment and against the spirit of the EPA.

There are five key changes proposed in this 2020 EIA draft notification that exposes the environment to industrial exploitation. They are:

  • There is a provision that a project can receive clearance Post – facto.

This means that the draft EIA notification tries to dismantle the core idea that an assessment should be done before a project starts and would also allow for projects that have already been operating without approval from EIA to be legalized.

  • The new draft has a clause that constraints public participation.

According to the new draft, violations can only be reported by a government representative or the project proponent i.e. if the patron of a project feels that project could have been violating impact over the environment, he can report himself. While no citizen will be allowed to do so. In lame terms the provision states, there is an “ease of doing business”

  • The draft has also slashed the period for the public to respond to an EIA from 30 days to 20 days.

Meaning that, when environmental impact assessment is presented for a public hearing, the community will have a mere 20 days to read, understand a lengthy project report and then file a submission.

  • The Draft EIA Notification exempts a long list of projects from a public consultation which government levels as “strategic”.

For example, linear projects such as roads and pipelines in border areas will not require any public hearing. The ‘border area’ is defined as “area falling within 100 kilometres aerial distance from the Line of Actual Control with bordering countries of India.” That would cover much of the Northeast, which is a repository of one of the country’s richest biodiversity.

  • The period to report requirements has been halved from every six months to once a year.

The new EIA Notification also extends the validity period for approvals in critical sectors such as, for mining the validity period has been extended from 30 years to 50 years and for river valley projects from 10 years to 15 years. This, increasing the risk of irreversible environmental, social, and health consequences on account of the project remaining unnoticed for long.

To protest the provisions brought into the draft notification to stifle the EIA several environmentalist groups sent numerous mail to the personal account of the Union Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar with subject line relating to EIA draft notification. Riled by these mails the minister filed a complaint citing spams and got the website of climate actions group Friday for future (FFF) India, Let India Breath and There Is No Earth B blocked.


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We have an update on our battle against digital censorship of environmental movements: Today filed RTIs with various government authorities for gaining more information about the blocking of our website on 10th July 2020. While we are deeply grateful to both IFF and the Press for their strong support, we recognize that this might just be the beginning of a long road ahead. And while this is certainly a challenge for us, we'd like to reiterate that this isn't the biggest or most important one. Our focus still remains upon stopping environmental destruction, especially that which the gravely ill-conceived Draft EIA Notification 2020 seeks to facilitate. Hence, we strongly urge everyone to learn about, talk, resist, and unite against the Draft EIA Notification 2020 and keep tweeting, sending e-mails, signing petitions, and more using (link in bio) which can be used by anyone in spite of the blocking of our website. (See that J!o 😉 We have been immensely heartened by and are grateful to the support that is being given to us during this challenging time and we truly hope that it will be extended to our urgent work & campaign against the dilution of the EIA Notification because once this draft becomes a law, all our battles for saving the environment will become exponentially more difficult.

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Later on, the FFF India was served a notice by Delhi police charging them under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA). This was eventually withdrawn by the Delhi police citing a "clerical error" and then Groups received another notice under the IT Act, which was also withdrawn.

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The government had issued that the last date for public to provide feedback on this draft notification would be 30th July, but the Delhi High court has extended the date for receiving public opinion to 11th August in response to the petition filed by Environmental conservationist Vikrant Tongad, which sought extension of the period for receiving public opinion regarding the draft notification due to the coronavirus pandemic. So now we have got an opportunity to come forward and join hands in the effort to combat climate change and give our feedback. 

Any person interested in making any objections or suggestions on the proposal contained in the draft notification may submit their feedback to the e-mail address: [email protected]

When the world is in dire need of robust Environmental laws because of the drastically change climate condition around the globe. Our government is impudently making a mockery of already rudimentary environmental laws. This draft notification proposed by our union government not only places mistrust of global leaders towards the environmental conservation stance of India but also brings scepticism toward India's commitment to sustainable development.

from The Second Angle